An early passion for science fiction and board games led to an influential career in technology. With a passion for increasing financial literacy and a gift for establishing personal relationships, Ms. Duckett has had a meteoric rise through corporate America. On March 19, , C-Span went live with its first public broadcast. We talked to one of its chief executives about its push for transparency in Washington. Salty will be among the new publications from the online platform led by Ev Williams, a former chief executive of Twitter.
WarnerMedia had started an investigation into allegations that Kevin Tsujihara had pushed for a woman with whom he had a sexual relationship to be considered for films and TV shows. It has long been an open secret that some farms survive by relying on an undocumented labor force.
Now, tough immigration enforcement has caused a crisis. Women in Germany are paid an average of 21 percent less than men. Contracts with the clauses aim to keep doctors from taking patients with them when they leave. But some patients say it hurts them. At a recent industry gathering, retailers talked of how collecting customer data will help them compete in a landscape dominated by the internet.
Maybe psychedelics? It all prepared her to take it public. The founder and chief executive of Code. Sweet helps major companies figure out the future. Maybe psychedelics? It all prepared her to take it public. The founder and chief executive of Code. Sweet helps major companies figure out the future. She is also working on creating true gender equality at the office. Starting a new job, an employee is already preparing to quit because of a supervisor who repeatedly levels unfair critiques and then apologizes. Please upgrade your browser.
Site Navigation Site Mobile Navigation. For Employers Find your perfect hire with our advanced matching and targeting and maximize your reach across 1, job sites - Times Talent Reach. Featured Properties. Latest Search Search. Clear this text input. By Megan Greenwell. By David Gelles. By Karen Weintraub. By Julia Jacobs. By Jaclyn Peiser. This, along with job opportunities, influences their intent to stay or leave their job, which may lead to their actual turnover. In the Price , conceptual model, a person's age, gender, marital status, and kinship responsibilities e.
In addition, employees bring certain expectations to the workplace. If working conditions allow the employees' expectations to be met, they will be satisfied with and committed to the job.get link
Registered nurses reveal the worst part about their jobs - Business Insider
Job satisfaction and organizational commitment, in turn, affect search behavior, which, depending upon their job opportunities, impacts intent to stay or leave. Intent to leave a job precedes and predicts actual turnover. Job satisfaction and intent to stay or leave a job are intervening variables between demographic and work characteristics on the one hand and job turnover on the other hand.
We sampled a large percentage of the population in order to ensure high power for our analyses Davern et al. Using Dillman's Tailored Design Method, we assigned each survey a tracking number and sent postcard reminders to nonrespondents after 3 weeks and a second survey to the remaining nonrespondents 3 weeks after that. Between August and the end of October , completed surveys were returned and 32 surveys were returned because of incorrect addresses.
We performed this analysis by comparing the demographics and geographical location of our respondents with the population of all NLRNs in Florida in the same year. The licensure data contain basic demographic information and addresses of all RNs. The bias analysis showed that this study's sample was demographically and geographically representative of the entire NLRN population in Florida in terms of age, gender, and ethnicity.
Our sample had slightly higher proportions of White respondents and respondents with an associate degree than are present in the entire NLRN population. The percentage of respondents in each county was very similar to the percentage in the population. The survey asked questions regarding the NLRN's personal and work characteristics, their job satisfaction and job values, their intent to stay in nursing, and their feelings of intent to leave or stay in the current organization.
It also asked for dates of starting and leaving up to three prior jobs and reasons for leaving the first job. The instrument was constructed by Kovner et al. Karasek and Spector and Jex developed and tested the job demand subscale, whereas Karasek and Gurney, Mueller, and Price developed and tested the job control subscale. The job satisfaction single item measure came from Quinn and Staines We tested the validity of the job demand and control scales using principal component analysis.
We also retested reliability using Cronbach's alpha, which was. We used many of the variables in our conceptual model of intent to stay at the job and job turnover. Dependent variables were turnover from any job and intent to leave the current job. A nurse was considered to have left a job if he or she reported an end date to a first, second, or third job. Intent to leave the current job was measured through a composite scale based on four Likert scale questions: would like to leave present employer; plan to leave present employer; plan to stay with employer as long as possible; and will not voluntarily leave present employer.
There were five response categories for each question, from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Response categories for the two questions regarding staying at the job were reverse coded for the composite scale. The composite scale was created by summing the values of the individual items and dividing by the number of items.
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Independent variables included demographic and workplace characteristics, job opportunities, and work and professional attitudes and values. Demographic variables are listed in Table 1 , and workplace characteristics and job opportunities are listed in Table 2. The composite score was an average of item scores obtained by summing the values of the individual items and dividing by the number of items. The job control scale listed in Table 2 was composed of three 5-point Likert scale items that indicated how frequently the respondent was able to act independently of the supervisor, make decisions and carry them out, and act independently of others Gurney et al.
Work and professional attitudes, listed in Table 3 , were job satisfaction, a set of values about what the NLRN is looking for in a job, and the intent of the NLRN to stay in nursing. Job satisfaction was a 7-point Likert scale item measuring the degree to which the individual was very dissatisfied to very satisfied with his or her current job. The values about a job were a set of nine aspects of a job that NLRNs might value.
NLRNs' intent to leave nursing was a scaled variable composed of four items, two of which were about leaving nursing and two were about staying in nursing. Response categories for the questions regarding staying in nursing were reverse coded for the composite scale. The composite scale was an average of item scores.
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Descriptive analyses were performed on the personal and work characteristics of the NLRNs, their work and professional attitudes, their intent to leave their current job, and their actual turnover in up to three jobs. For those NLRNs who left their first job, we described the personal and work environment reasons they gave for why they left that job. To explore the predictors of job turnover and intent to leave the job, we used two separate models: one where the dependent variable was job turnover from any of three jobs and the other where the dependent variable was intent to leave the current job.
For the job turnover analysis, the explanatory variables were NLRN personal characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, race, marital status, whether there were children in the home, self-perceived health, educational level, and months since becoming RNs, whether they had worked in health care before, and whether they planned to stay at their first job. We also used work and professional characteristics and work attitudes that were not dependent on the current job, such as their first orientation adequacy and length, whether they planned to leave nursing, and to what degree they valued nine identified job characteristics.
For the analysis of intent to leave the current job, the explanatory variables were all of those used in the turnover analysis, plus whether the NLRN currently worked in a hospital setting, perceptions of job demand and control in the current job, satisfaction with the current job, the ability to find as good a job as the current one, the number of patients in the most recent shift, and current wages. A logistic regression was run for the NLRN turnover model.
An ordinary least squares regression was run for the intent to leave model. Statistical significance for interpreting the strength of relationships was set at an alpha level of. Nearly two thirds were married, and close to one-half had children in the home. Nearly all listed their health as good to excellent. Over one-half had prior work in health care. At the time of the survey, the respondents had been RNs for 26 months on average. Sixty percent felt that they would be able to get a job in the area somewhat easily to very easily.
NLRNs had 5. On a scale of , job demands were at the level of 4 on average, whereas on a scale of , job control was at a level of 4. NLRN work attitudes are presented in Table 3. Seventy-four percent were somewhat to very satisfied with their current job.
NLRNs valued a job particularly for the pay, benefits, being informed, being able to make decisions, being rewarded fairly, and, most of all, being able to do the job well. Thirty-five percent had left at least one job. Of 27 reasons for leaving the first job, listed in Table 5 , work-related reasons were cited most often. Unspecified reasons for leaving were the most cited personal reason for leaving the first job 9. Table 6 presents the results of the analysis of predictors of turnover and intent to leave a job.
Significant predictors of having left a job were being White, having a higher degree, wanting to be informed at the job, and wanting to do a good job. Predictors of not having left the job were perceptions of having had a good orientation, planning to stay for a long time at the first job, and valuing being rewarded fairly. Factors that were related to a higher intent to leave the job were having a higher degree, a longer orientation at the first job, having the ability to find as good a job in the area as the current one, and planning to leave nursing. Factors that were related to less intent to leave a job were being older, having expectations of staying longer at the first job, and higher job satisfaction.
Other demographic characteristics, workplace characteristics, and attitudes toward work were not predictors of turnover or intent to leave the job. Our data and that of these comparison studies were conducted prior to the recession, so NLRN turnover may be lower after that date. However, these studies provide a good indicator of turnover without economic pressure.
Despite the fact that NLRNs in our study were generally satisfied with their jobs, most of those who left their jobs reported that heavy workload, stressful work, poor management, and inability to provide good care were top reasons for leaving. In addition, in the predictive model, several important work environment factors were associated with intending to leave or leaving the job: length and adequacy of orientation; expectations of being well informed, of doing a good job, and of being rewarded fairly; and job satisfaction.
Educators can help reduce workload and stress by teaching RNs how to manage heavy patient loads and how to handle stress. Learning how to manage workload and stress only goes so far, however, and managers need to do their utmost to maintain reasonable staffing levels and provide needed resources so that workload and stress do not become overwhelming.
Educators should particularly take note of the results regarding NLRN orientation as the quality of orientation was a significant predictor of turnover. Our results support those findings, but questions remain as to what exactly makes a "good" orientation program. In order to improve the orientation process, future research should be conducted on the impacts of specific types of orientation programs. Meeting expectations also appears to be important to retaining NLRNs.
Clarifying roles, providing clear instructions, and promoting good communication may help meet the need of NLRNs to be well informed. Role clarification is important in the orientation period but is also an ongoing process as the RN matures in the job and roles change. Educators and managers can help improve instructions by making sure that guidelines are clear, up to date, and easily accessible.
Communication skills should be a part of all orientation programs and should be assessed and reinforced on a regular basis.
Expectations of being rewarded fairly were linked to job leaving. These expectations could include material rewards, such as pay and benefits, as well as nonmaterial ones, such as praise from supervisors, feelings of accomplishment, and satisfaction for a job well done. Indeed, in their reasons for why they left a job, many NLRNs listed poor pay and benefits. Even more said that it had been impossible to do a quality job. It is important that NLRNs be rewarded well and fairly for their work, both in terms of material and nonmaterial benefits. The last expectation that contributed to NLRNs leaving the job was that they wanted to do a good job.
Not being able to provide good nursing care may cause dissatisfaction and lead to leaving a job. Reasons for NLRNs not being able to do a good job could include the other issues already discussed such as workload, job stress, managerial issues, information problems, inadequate orientation, and other work issues. Therefore, this expectation will more likely be realized if these other issues are improved. The correlation between NLRNs intending to leave their job and intending to leave nursing is a concern. With a large cohort of older nurses entering retirement, the nursing shortage will worsen unless ways are found to increase new recruits into nursing and keep them there.
This finding makes it even more imperative that nursing workplaces be made less stressful and more rewarding for new nurses so they remain in the workforce. The strong correlation between job satisfaction and lower intent to leave the job is not surprising. This correlation supports the theory that job dissatisfaction is a precursor to intending to leave a job.
Because in other studies job satisfaction is related to work environment issues e. It is a limitation of our study that we did not examine this mediating relationship, which requires a structural equation model or path analysis in order to test these complex relationships. Another limitation of this study is the low response rate, which could raise the possibility of response bias and therefore affect the validity of results.