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More important is the more substantial novel Wunschkost , which tells of the POW Ulmer, whose comrades ensure that he escapes death from pneumonia by collecting enough money to buy penicillin. Deutsche Lyrik seit 45 , In diesem Lande leben wir. Deutsche Gedichte der Gegenwart , and has recently returned to the short story Bruderherz Worte Bilder Menschen represents a crosssection of his early work. Werke six vols began to appear in Benn, Gottfried — Generally acknowledged to be one of the most outstanding German lyric poets of the twentieth century, Gottfried Benn came from a family of Protestant parsons, studied medicine in Marburg and Berlin and published, shortly after graduating as a medical officer in , a cycle of poems entitled Morgue und andere Gedichte.

Wir wollen den Rausch. Wir rufen Dionysos und Ithaka! The collection Fleisch appeared in , Schutt and Spaltung in and respectively. In an incomprehensible universe meaning is only achieved through the poetic act, the mysterious fusion of disparate parts: Broadway, interstellar space, the Parthenon, the cervical cortex. Benn moved in the same circle as Klabund, Oskar Loerke and J. His standpoint is clearly expressed in Der neue Staat und die Intellektuellen of Benn found himself, however, out of favour with the authorities for his earlier poems, his formalism and modernism, and was attacked in as a purveyor of lewd pornography.

In isolation he concentrated upon a definition of poetry as being an act of defiance in the face of absurdity and nihilism. Benn remained in Berlin after ; the brilliance, intensity, and also the tone of quiet resignation in his poetry attracted a growing readership who were prepared to condone his earlier political views. In Benn delivered a famous lecture at Marburg University on problems of writing lyric poetry, a lecture quoted and discussed in Cambridge by T. Eight volumes of Gesammelte Werke ed. A complete edition Stuttgarter Ausgabe began publication in In there appeared his first novel, Das Gesetz des Atum, a derivative E.

Hoffmann and pseudo-expressionistic account of student life in which Atum, an ancient Egyptian sun-god, acts as judge and paradigm. Surprisingly, the book was not banned by the Nazis. Bergengruen remained within Germany, although life became increasingly difficult for him: in he was removed from the Reichsschrifttumskammer, although he was allowed to publish Am Himmel wie auf Erden in A historical novel which is set in sixteenth-century Brandenburg, the book also hints at punishment and a higher destiny; Bergengruen, by now a devout Catholic, was not blinded by the initial successes of the German army.

Der Tod von Reval is a grotesquely humorous Totentanz; Der spanische Rosenstock a delightful piece of escapism. After the war Bergengruen published his Rittmeister trilogy, and also collected his poetry and published it in two volumes, Die heile Welt and Figur und Schatten Bernhard, Thomas —89 A dominant but eccentric figure in contemporary German letters, with Handke the bestknown Austrian writer of recent decades, Bernhard has monomaniacally devoted himself to an ever more elaborate transposition of his bleak vision of the senselessness of human existence into a vast output of work in prose fiction, autobiography and drama, in which mental disturbance, physical decay and death are the permanent themes.

After travels in Sicily, Britain and Poland Bernhard withdrew to a farm in the centre of Upper Austria which he turned into a hermitage for the production of the works eighteen full-length plays, seven full-length novels, numerous stories and shorter prose in addition to the autobiographical series which poured without interruption from his pen in the following twenty-four years. Many of the figures in his novels and plays indulge in more or less literary forms of the Schwadronade tirade or flyting monologue characteristic of Austrian folk culture.

Many of them are locked into inescapable family relationships defined by the dialectic of domination and servitude e.

Alternatively the discipline demanded by art turns its practitioners into performing machines indistinguishable from circus animals, as in the Salzburg plays Der Ignorant und der Wahnsinnige and Die Macht der Gewohnheit In setting all his novels in remote parts of rural Austria Bernhard challenges like several contemporary Austrian novelists the strong tradition of the Heimatroman as represented by e. Stifter, Rosegger and Waggerl, inverting its values to create black idylls. He often models his figures on real persons, making the connection more or less explicit e.

Gesammelte Gedichte appeared in His prose is spare and pointed, conveying static situations without dramatic conflict. The eight Kindergeschichten A-Z 27 are not only for children; the strange but harmless obsessions of the aged eccentrics who populate them are portrayed with sympathy, while a few stories, in which the withdrawal to a private world leads to the invention of a private language, recall the inspired nonsense of Lear and Carroll. Bichsel has attacked Swiss conservatism in combative newspaper articles, essays and speeches collected in Geschichten zur falschen Zeit and Schulmeistereien Der Busant marks a return to the short story, which forms the subject of the Frankfurt lecture Der Leser.

Zur Stadt Paris contains forty-eight miniature stories. Bonifaz oder Der Matrose in der Flasche recounts the picaresque adventures on land and sea of the title-figure. The original version of Maria Morzeck oder Das Kaninchen bin ich was produced and filmed in the GDR; however, neither book nor film reached the public and Bieler left the GDR for Prague in , eventually settling in Munich in Bieler is also the author of numerous radio plays, some of which are collected in Drei Rosen aus Papier , Still wie die Nacht.

Bienek, Horst —90 Born in Silesia, Bienek had contacts with Brecht and the Berliner Ensemble until, after taking part in an anti-Stalinist protest in West Berlin, he was deported to the Soviet Union, where he spent the following four years in the Gulag. He subsequently lived in the West, mainly in Munich and its environs. Each of volumes I—III focuses on one day in the lives of the Piontek family and their friends: 31 August , 4 September , Good Friday , while in volume IV the action is divided between the occupation of Gleiwitz by the Russians and the destruction of Dresden in February , an episode into which Bienek introduces the unnamed but clearly identifiable figure of Gerhart Hauptmann.

Together the novels throw much light on everyday life during the Third Reich and in particular on German-Polish-Jewish relations in a frontier area plagued by communal strife. Childhood and growing up in Silesia are also the subject of Beschreibung einer Provinz. Aufzeichnungen, Materialien, Dokumente and Reise in die Kindheit , and his other volumes of poetry Gleiwitzer Kindheit and Die Zeit danach are autobiographically based.

Poems: Wer antwortet wem Prinz Kuckuck. His works for the stage, and further novels, were not so successful. The Gesammelte Werke ten volumes appeared between and Biermann, Wolf — Poet, singer, composer and guitar virtuoso, Biermann, whose communist father was murdered in Auschwitz in , was born into a working-class family in Hamburg.

From until September he was forbidden to perform in the GDR and all his publications and records appeared only in the West Die Drahtharfe , Mit Marx- und Engelszungen , Deutschland. Having been given permission to take part in a concert tour of the Federal Republic he was deprived of his citizenship on 16 November after performing with spectacular success in Cologne.

He belongs both to an international line of poetmusicians incl. Despite the difficulties of maintaining his role in the West and the occasional signs of resignation e. A journey to Hamburg in inspired the stanzas of Deutschland. Yet even birthday poems for his children are given a political dimension in the context of the nuclear threat. Klappe zu. Billinger, Richard — Born in Upper Austria, from peasant stock, Billinger trained for the priesthood but later turned to writing.

His novels deal with the interaction of the sacred and the profane, generally in a rural setting: Die Asche des Fegefeuers established his reputation. Das Schutzengelhaus deals with the experiences of Philomela Spielhahn, a town-dweller, during a holiday in the country, a situation somewhat akin to that of Cold Comfort Farm. Perchtenspiel , first performed at the Salzburg Festival mixes natural and supernatural, modern and mystical, in an uncomfortable manner; Rauhnacht and Spiel vom Knecht anticipate the theatre of Franz Xaver Kroetz.

The Gesammelte Werke twelve volumes appeared between and Binding, Rudolf — An author known primarily through his Novellen and war diary, Rudolf Binding was a late developer as a writer and did not publish until he was over forty. The Gesammelte Werke two volumes appeared in , with Die Briefe in The Nazis forbade him to write because of his expressionist poetry; he died almost completely blind.

Blei, Franz — Blei, a versatile critic, essayist and writer, was most influential in the literary life at the turn of the century, founding various journals, of which Hyperion was the most famous. Blei also wrote poetry and plays, some conventional Der dunkle Weg and Logik des Herzens , but Die Welle, produced by Hugo Ball in the Munich Kammerspiele , with Blei himself acting in it, demonstrated his links with more experimental theatre.

He died in Westbury, Long Island. Six volumes of Vermischte Schriften were published from to ; the Schriften in Auswahl, with an essay by A. A-Z 33 Blunck, Hans — A writer of prose, poetry and plays, Hans Blunck born in Altona became identified with Blut und Boden literature and the cult of North-German earnestness, mission and superiority.

From to Blunck was president of the newlyformed Reichsschrifttumskammer; relations between him and Joseph Goebbels became strained, and Hanns Johst replaced him. A ten-volume edition of his writings appeared in he received the Goethe medal in the same year. Blunck was pronounced a Nazi sympathizer and collaborator by the Denazification Tribunal in he insisted that the verdict was unjust. The Gesammelte Werke in Einzelausgaben fifteen vols appeared from to ; Dramen und Lustspiele two vols , also in ; Das Gesamtwerk four vols between and Bobrowski, Johannes —65 Bobrowski was born in Tilsit and grew up in Memel, and all his poetry and much of his prose result from the effort to reconstruct through memory the landscape and childhood experiences of this frontier area, in which Poles, Lithuanians, Russians and Jews had lived in close proximity for generations.

Bobrowski was both conservative in his debt to poets such as Klopstock mainly ignored in the twentieth century and, in the context of GDR writing, in his Christian commitment, and modernist in his development of free verse and of a fragmentary prose form which allows several voices and perspectives to emerge. Along with Peter Huchel he is a master of the humanized landscape. Despite his circumscribed themes his influence is present in the work of several writers, incl. Bobrowski wrote his earliest poems as a soldier in Russia, some of which appeared in the periodical Das innere Reich before the end of the war, but the majority of his poems can be dated to the years — The award in the latter year of the prize of Gruppe 47 after his second reading before the group and the publication of his first collection Sarmatische Zeit made him known in the West.

Ganz neue Xenien , the last a series of satirical epigrams on figures in the contemporary German literary landscape. Haufe, appeared from The attitudes which find consistent expression in both his fiction and his public writings e. All present the senselessness of war by adopting the perspective of the ordinary soldier whose only escape from the horrors of combat, the total subordination to his superiors and the souldestroying boredom of military routine is the memory or fantasy of private happiness.

In Und sagte kein einziges Wort the predicament of the soldier come home, forced by inadequate housing to meet his wife in hotel rooms, is exacerbated by the unsympathetic attitude of the better off and contrasted with ecclesiastical pomp and tasteless advertising. Their accounts, in throwing light on the separate stages of her biography, add up to a panorama of the period to , placing Gruppenbild firmly in the tradition of the Zeitroman. Acts of terrorism by the Rote Armee Faktion better known as the Baader-Meinhof group forced the authorities in the Federal Republic to mobilize state power to an extent unprecedented in its history in order to arrest, try and convict them.

While the anti-terrorist campaign undoubtedly had the support of public A companion to twentieth-century german literature 36 opinion, it occasionally led to excesses which undermined rights guaranteed by the constitution as those suspected of sympathizing with or sheltering terrorists were subjected to police surveillance and vilified by sections of the press. For all his faults, parochialism, sentimentality, black-and-white characterization, he demonstrated that the novel is still able to show how people relate to one another as members of a family, a community and a nation.

A collected edition, Werke, in ten volumes, appeared in Bonsels, Waldemar — Traveller, publisher and writer of popular novels and stories, Bonsels made his reputation with Die Biene Maja und ihre Abenteuer , a charming account of a queen bee and the adventures that befall it. A year before his death he republished, under the title Das vergessene Licht, an earlier pseudo-Christian novel. Borchardt, Rudolf — An author remembered for his essays and translations, Borchardt was one of a group of writers R.

The neo-romantic aspects of his earlier poetry Jugendgedichte increasingly gave way to classical forms. Borchardt was an accomplished linguist and translated from Greek, English and Italian: his Dante Deutsch —30 is an acknowledged masterpiece. Borchardt was a close associate of Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Vermischte Gedichte appeared in The novel Vereinigung durch den Feind hindurch was published in Vienna: the title refers to an essay on military tactics.

Borchardt, who was partly Jewish, was arrested by the Gestapo, but later released; he died in the Tyrol at the end of the war. He also wrote numerous poems, only a few of which were eventually published. Die traurigen Geranien made available further unpublished material. His first novel Der zweite Tag , in which the impressions received on a train journey are registered in minute detail, bare of symbol and metaphor, can be associated with the Cologne school of realism including Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner. The poems, eventually collected in Gedichte — , show the influence of the Americans W.

Politics, reflection on the function of poetry and moments of satisfaction and hope contrasted with fear of the impersonal forces of the state are further topics in the later poems. In taking up a Third World theme, it marks a significant departure from what was in danger of becoming a new provincialism and can be compared with similar works by Uwe Timm and F.

The play Rotter concerns the self-imposed conformity of an underprivileged figure determined to prove himself in both the Third Reich and the early years of reconstruction. Liebe macht Tod is a variation of Romeo and Juliet. Braun, Felix — A fervent literary disciple of Hofmannsthal, Felix Braun was a minor writer associated with the Viennese cultural scene at the turn of the century his autobiography Das Licht der Welt. Geschichte eines Versuches, als Dichter zu leben gives a sympathetic and informative account of meetings with Hofmannsthal, Rilke, Wildgans, Ginzkey, Mell, Stefan Zweig, Werfel and others.

He travelled widely, living in Italy and also in exile in England. His verse dramas betray much sensitivity but little dramatic talent: themes are derived from classical antiquity Tantalos , Aktaion and Der Tod des Aischylos and from the history of the house of Habsburg Kaiser Karl V and Rudolf der Stifter. The collections Wir und nicht sie , Gedichte , extended and Gegen die symmetrische Welt are marked by mastery of numerous short forms and a critical dialogue with earlier German poets.

The dialectic of past and present, of Utopian hope and reality is treated in manifold variations, culminating in the last volume in fragmentary forms which appear to reflect a fear of stagnation. Bodenloser Satz presents the decline of the GDR through an account of environmental pollution. Texte in zeitlicher Folge appeared in eight volumes between and Brecht, Bertolt — Brecht was one of a group of young dramatists who emerged during the early years of the Weimar Republic and whose works frequently awarded the Kleist prize created theatrical scandals by their fearless outspokenness and reluctance to conform to accepted standards.

Through collaboration with Feuchtwanger and others Brecht, with cunning and undeniable talent, kept abreast of the modern techniques of a man like Piscator. It was after the enormous success of this work, a work that the audience seemed bent on enjoying at all costs, that Brecht tended to the extremes of dogmatism which he felt were necessary to convey his social message: the need for a new society, free from exploitation and privilege.

What makes Mann ist Mann , the Dreigroschenoper and Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny — 9 such good entertainment is the plenitude of ebullient characters, rooted in a fantastic Victorian, Anglo-American or Anglo-Indian world never found in reality but culled from the legends of the roaring twenties, or the heyday of the British Raj; Brecht never ceased to admire the world of boxers, lumberjacks, colonial soldiers and gangsters, which he may, in part, have derived from the expressionist cult of vital, atavistic forces.

Brecht needed also the stimulus of collaboration, which stemmed from a sincere desire to discuss and learn rather than from paucity of invention, as the critic Alfred Kerr claimed, who sought constantly to detect plagiarism. Brecht wrote closely with Klabund, who would later give Brecht the idea for Der kaukasische Kreidekreis. After the burning of the Reichstag Brecht fled to Vienna; he attended the meeting at Sanary-sur-mer of exiled writers, and thence moved to Denmark, to the province of Svendborg, where he watched events in Germany most closely.

A-Z 43 The view that Brecht, deprived of a theatre, turned his attention to formulating a Marxist aesthetic of drama, a theoretically determined system, is erroneous: the subsequent theorizing was an attempt to explain to himself as well as to others how it happened that this or that particular work had been written and produced in a particular way. His theoretical writings reflect the way in which he meditated upon his own work: there is nothing rigid nor inflexibly ideological about his speculation. The tone is light, frequently wryly humorous, often curious, but always allowing for movement and renewal; a rare intelligence is at work which questions, worries, retreats, adapts and restates.

The Messingkauf dialogues, a four-handed conversation piece, relate more directly to theatrical problems, and stress above all the need for lightness of touch, Spiel, and a kind of elegance in acting which contains sobriety within it. The rapier thrust is preferred to the sabre blow, the elliptical precision of Chinese art to Germanic ponderousness and an athletic form of acting to the pretentiously histrionic. This was to be the play with which the Berliner Ensemble opened in ; it has remained in the repertoire ever since and has been staged by the leading theatres throughout the world.

Every scene, and there are twelve of them, is supposed to stand as a self-contained unit indeed, in theory they should be virtually interchangeable , but a cumulative effect is undeniable, and there are moments that are conventionally dramatic, which enthral, rather than alienate, the audience. Brecht did not approve of the reactions of the audience after the first performance: in notes to the play he added certain modifications which were intended to emphasize the more negative qualities of the central character.

He had been forced, he A companion to twentieth-century german literature 44 claimed, to overstate the differences between the conventional theatre and his own in order that certain abuses be rectified: there was nothing sacrosanct or dogmatic about his suggestions. As early as Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny he had, in fact, stressed that an overschematic differentiation between dramatic and epic was unsuitable: it was simply a matter of emphasis.

In he had written a conventional play—admittedly not one of his best—on Aristotelian lines, Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar, which provided opportunity for splendid acting on the part of the heroine. Brecht turned on the critics and admonished them to look at his plays as plays, without preconceived ideas or theories. His initial concern was to show Galileo as a man determined to live, whose cunning recantation enables the truth to be heard despite the strictures of the Church. The issues are intellectual, but the play provides magnificent theatre, especially in the scene of the dressing of the Pope, the transformation of man to institution as each layer of clothing is added.

The Soviet purges sickened him, as did the American situation: the work on the film Hangmen Also Die with Fritz Lang made him entirely disillusioned with the American film industry. The theme of goodness occupied him once again, but the basic theme concerns the rightness of giving the child or the disputed land to those best able to tend or cultivate it. The play is most successful in the portrayal of the judge Azdak, a figure compounded of the vitality and amoral zest of Baal, of Puntila and, to a lesser extent, of Galileo himself. Brecht returned to Europe at the end of The setting up of his own Theater am Schiffbauerdamm brought little comfort: the Berliner Ensemble was boycotted by the orthodox critics, the workers made up only a small percentage of the audience, and government pressure was brought to bear at every point.

It is perhaps significant that Brecht wrote nothing of original merit for the theatre after his return to East Berlin; he adapted, produced and modified, turning his attention, amongst other things, to Waiting for Godot and Pineapple Poll. He withdrew again into poetry and wrote, in the Buckower Elegien, some of his finest.

With economy, grace and sobriety he evoked a world of trees and water, silence and serenity, far from the turmoil of Berlin. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 46 Brinkmann, Rolf Dieter —75 Brinkmann, whose early death in a road accident on a visit to London put an end to a career which may or may not have been in the doldrums, began in association with the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner, etc. Never political, he combined crude vitalism, linguistic virtuosity and an obsession with the surface detail of everyday life; only the last of these features, however, was taken up and developed by others e.

While his poetry already seems dated and undisciplined, his final major prose work Rom. Blicke may prove to be a seminal work in its combination of verbal and photographic commentary, besides maintaining the strong German tradition of literature portraying the metropolis. Britting, Georg — Poet, playwright and writer of narrative prose, Britting started to write after the First World War he was badly wounded in He collaborated on many expressionist journals Die rote Erde, Der Sturmreiter, Der silberne Spiegel and edited his own, Die Sichel, with Josef Achmann, who contributed the graphic designs.

Britting greatly admired Georg Heym; he also wrote grotesque versions of biblical themes Hiob, Kain, Jor auf der Flucht, etc. During the Second World War Britting turned increasingly to nature poetry, leaving behind the excesses of expressionism and the parodistic elements of Hamlet.

Lob des Weines, a collection of twenty poems, appeared in more were added after the war Britting turned to traditional themes and structures, although his imagery remained fresh and striking. Broch insisted upon an intellectualization of the novel, on working out, by sheer intellectual effort, the troubles of the world. Theoretical essays alternated with works of imagination: philosophical, mass-psychological and socio-economic investigations return ultimately to a religious realization of the fallenness of man; the inability to love is the root cause, for Broch, of human unhappiness.

Both Broch and Musil embarked upon vast novels that would encompass the problems of the age, combining rationalism and mysticism. The Schlafwander trilogy —2 , encyclopedic and polyhistorical novels, have as their concern the disintegration of values and the decay of European civilization in the period — The first, Pasenow oder die Romantik, has been compared with Fontane, but the secure ground of the nineteenth century has been left far behind: the age seems bent on radical solutions, and the symbol of the uniform seems an apt one.

The second, Esch oder die Anarchie, portrays the insubstantiality of the existence of the small book-keeper Esch, who is able neither to escape from Europe nor to come to terms with it; the third, Huguenau oder die Sachlichkeit, portrays violence and anarchic forces which destroy the narcissistic world of the heroine. The realization of the helplessness of the word when faced by the unspeakable will be a concern of many writers in the twentieth century, especially in German-speaking countries.

The fourth novel, Die Schuldlosen , treats twentieth-century themes and uses certain dates , and as points of reference: the dangers of solipsism are analysed with considerable sensitivity. The novel is uncomfortably suspended between political allegory and romantic myth. The character of Mutter Gisson with her Demeterlike qualities fails to convince, the symbolism being forced and obtrusive, but the description of mass psychology is masterful. The speculative study on A companion to twentieth-century german literature 48 Massenpsychologie stands comparison with the essay Masse und Macht by Elias Canetti as one of the most perceptive analyses of the relationship between the individual self and the corporate whole.

Broch, of Jewish parentage, was arrested when the Nazis invaded Austria, but was released on the intervention of writers like James Joyce. He settled in America and wrote his last novels there. The Gesammelte Schriften ten vols appeared between and reprinted ; the Kommentierte Werkausgabe 13—17 vols appeared from to His early story Tod den Toten! As a Jew, Brod became a Zionist in , and he became especially interested in the more conservative faith of his co-religionists from the eastern provinces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Brod emigrated to Tel Aviv in and died there in In that year his autobiography Streitbares Leben appeared, which contains enlightening references to Kafka and also to Franz Werfel, of whose conversion to Christianity see Das Lied von Bernadette Brod did not approve.

He produced three volumes of war poetry, Aus meiner Kriegszeit. Gedichte , Kamerad, als wir marschierten. Kriegsgedichte and Soldaten der Erde. Neue Kriegsgedichte A war novel, Bunker Geschichte einer Kameradschaft , was widely read it was translated into English as Pillbox Gesamtausgabe der Gedichte in Eine Auswahl der Gedichte appeared in Bronnen, Arnolt originally Bronner, — Dramatist and novelist, Bronnen was one of the most extreme of the young talented writers who made the opening years of the Weimar Republic a fascinating and often disturbing experience.

His play Vatermord written in , performed in Berlin in was the first of many scandals that surrounded his name; the portrayal of brutal violence and uninhibited sexuality outraged the audience. Die Geburt der Jugend is a chaotic description of anarchic youth; the older generation is annihilated by sexually demented adolescents. In his comedy Die Exzesse the erotic desires of the woman, Hildegarde, find satisfaction in contemplation of intercourse with a goat. Katalaunische Schlacht looks back to the war as a time of frenzied and erotic ecstasy.

Rheinische Rebellen is an overtly nationalist play; Ostpolzug , a monodrama, fuses ancient and modern in its portrayal of Alexander the Great. The novel O. Bronnen worked for the film industry in the s, also the Reichsrundfunkgesellschaft. His relations with the Nazis were, however, strained. His autobiography Arnolt Bronnen gibt zu Protokoll appeared in ; Tage mit Brecht posthumously in Bruckner, Ferdinand pseudonym of Theodor Tagger, — Primarily a dramatist, Bruckner achieved fame in with his play Krankheit der Jugend, a crass and naturalistic portrayal of adolescent sexuality, much indebted to Freud.

Bruckner used techniques made famous by Erwin Piscator; his greatest success was Elisabeth von England , where the stage is again split between the two realms, Catholic Madrid and Protestant London, with both antagonists praying to the same god for victory.

Schattenkampf - Europas Resistance gegen die Nazis 1944-1945

Bruckner also turned his attention, with less success, to classical themes Timon and Pyrrhus und Andromache perf. A very successful play was Die Rassen , one which exploits the generation conflict and also the tension between Jew and Aryan. Bruckner emigrated to America in and returned to Europe in , spending the last years of his life in Berlin. Dramatische Werke and Schauspiele nach historischen Studien were both published in An edition of Dramen appeared in Brust was helped by Kurt Wolff; he lived in isolation in Memel and moved to Cranz after the Lithuanian occupation. Brust shares with many expressionists a predilection for crass and often shocking climaxes.

Brust turned towards a portrayal of pseudoreligious experiences in a series of other plays Cordatus. He died in obscurity, isolation and poverty at the age of forty-three; the Nazis initially tolerated his writing, believing him to be an acceptable poet of East Prussian life, although later his work was condemned as degenerate. The Dramen — ed. Horst Denkler appeared in Since then he has written stories Ein schwarzer, abgrundtiefer See , extended and Babylon and novels which concentrate on human foibles and idiosyncrasies in domestic and professional contexts, although social and political pressures, implicitly criticized, are present in various forms.

Essays Kritiken Glossen Unpolitische Betrachtungen zu Literatur und Politik demonstrate individual interests Haiti, Alejo Carpentier and more general concerns of his generation ecology, post-history, apocalypse , the latter present also in Bericht aus dem Innern der Unruhe. Gorlebener Tagebuch , on demonstrations against nuclear power.

Central to the rest of his work is his relationship to the American continent and in particular Haiti, which he visited for the first time in and where he has ancestral links. In the reportages Aus der neuen Welt. Afro-amerikanische Impressionen An informative document on Burckhardt is the Festschrift which appeared on his seventieth birthday, Dauer im Wechsel Burger, Hermann —89 Burger studied in Zurich, wrote dissertations on Paul Celan and contemporary Swiss literature and taught for a while at the Federal Technical University in Zurich.

His chief works, Schilten. Burger shares with the Austrian Thomas Bernhard and with other contemporary Swiss writers e. Meyer the theme of death as the ultimate threat to personal identity, which he treats with an even greater degree of linguistic virtuosity and reflective intensity. He committed suicide in Brunsloben and Menzenmang volume I and volume II, chapters 1—7 of the planned tetralogy Brenner on the scion of a cigar manufacturing dynasty in search of his childhood appeared in and Der unsichtbare Held, a Nibelungen drama, appeared in the same year.

A companion to twentieth-century german literature 54 Burte published poems in Alemannic dialect Madlee ; a further anthology appeared in Die Seele des Maien. Burte received much acclaim for his work, the Kleist prize for Wildfeber and other distinctions during the Third Reich. The sinologist Peter Kien, obsessed by his own private library, and retreating ever further into a state of solipsism, is ultimately destroyed by fire, ancient symbol of transformation.

The other characters, Pfaff, Theresa Krumbholz and Fischerle, are also utterly self-centred and convinced of their own importance. The idea for the novel came to Canetti in when he witnessed the burning of the Palace of Justice by a mob in Vienna. Canetti moved to Paris in and to London in the following year. In he published Masse und Macht, a sociological, anthropological study of crowds and power: here fire is interpreted as a symbol for the crowd.

A collection of aphorisms made between and , Aufzeichnungen, appeared in Das Geheimnis der Uhr. Aufzeichnungen — appeared in In Canetti was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 56 Carossa, Hans — Son of a doctor, Hans Carossa studied medicine in Munich and Leipzig, then settled as a medical practitioner in Bavaria. Verwandlungen einer Jugend is a less successful sequel. The novel Geheimnisse des reifen Lebens uses the diary form to explore human relationships.

Uruguay , Boucherf v. Algeria , p. Uruguay , the rights of minorities Kitok v. Sweden, Poma v. Peru , p. Canada , pp. The Netherlands , pp. Czech Republic , p. Belgium , etc. Although the Committee is only competent to apply and interpret the ICCPR and therefore cannot pronounce itself on the scope of application of other human rights treaties such as the Refugee Convention, its jurisprudence does provide a degree of protection to refugees and persons in refugee-like situations. For instance, States may not deport, expel refouler , or extradite persons under their jurisdiction, if the persons in question would thereby be exposed to grave violations of their Covenant rights, such as the right to life Article 6 ICCPR , the prohibition of torture and ill-treatment Article 7 ICCPR , and the right to privacy and family life Articles 17 and 23 ICCPR.

Moreover, in deciding whether to grant or deny asylum or refugee status, States parties to the ICCPR may not discriminate, since Article 26 stipulates an autonomous right to equality of treatment. Madagascar, Giry v. Ecuador, Karker v. France pp. The book also brings useful statistics, indices by subject matter and by cases cited, and an appendix listing all members of the Committee since , including the five new members who took their oath in March pp. This important case law handbook should be present in every United Nations office that directly or indirectly deals with victims of human rights violations, including refugees, internally displaced persons, and migrant workers.

Human rights advocates and refugee officers will find it most useful. Click here for table of contents. He is an expert on war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, and has published pertinent scholarly books and articles, including the handbook United Nations Human Rights Committee Case-Law Kehl, N. Engel a legal opinion on The Genocide against the Armenians and the Relevance of the Genocide Convention Beirut, Haigazian University Press , and a study on ethnic cleansing and the remedies available to victims Heimatrecht ist Menschenrecht Munich, Universitas Millions of innocent human beings persecuted and murdered under the cover of the war.

Why this insanity? Which were the mechanisms of destruction? How many Germans and non-Germans participated in the murder campaign? De Zayas started tackling these questions when he wrote his ground-breaking Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press , a study of the specialized bureau in the legal division of the Wehrmacht that investigated the violations of the Hague and Geneva Conventions during World War II, similar to the war crimes offices in Washington and London.

He goes out of his way to personally interview those who knew. As the book and the hundreds of footnotes manifest, de Zayas masters the secondary literature in the field. But while he carefully considers the opinions of other scholars, he does not rehash what is already in the secondary literature — he takes a fresh look at the evidence, poses new questions — and proposes prudent answers, avoiding guessing and extrapolation. He places the evidence in the proper historical context, avoiding the anachronisms that lesser historians indulge in. Crucial in his analysis is the totalitarian context, the ubiquitous role of the Gestapo, the prohibition of listening to foreign radio transmissions, the atmosphere of terror and denunciation.

The questions of who knew what and when about the Holocaust are not new. De Zayas is thorough in reviewing the answers and is rightly sceptical about the attempts of the accused to deny the bulk of the charges against them. But one thing does emerge from the Nuremberg evidence: the enormous effort put in by the Nazi functionaries to keep the Holocaust secret, to deny any rumours, to imprison anyone who would talk about it. This is heavy stuff. But it is all in black and white in the Nuremberg records. Why is this book important?

Some 66 years after the war certain simplifications have taken hold that should be put to the test. None of these historians have succeeded in proving their thesis — but they repeat it so often, that one might start to believe it. De Zayas questions and rejects their extrapolations and simplifications. A piece of the mosaic is not the mosaic. A rumour is not proven knowledge. A letter from a soldier in the field reporting on a massacre is not equivalent to knowledge of the Holocaust. One thing is to know that massacres occur in wartime, another is to know that these massacres were systematic and genocidal, aimed at the extermination of a people.

This was a relatively new concept — already tried successfully during the Ottoman destruction of the Armenian people But even there, the genocide was secret and officially denied. And to this day the Turkish government continues to deny it. Since de Zayas is not only a historian but also a lawyer, he insists on solid proof of the crimes abundant and on equally solid evidence of the knowledge about the crimes fragmentary, imprecise, non-existent — and he listens to all sides.

Audiatur et altera pars characterizes best the methodology of this remarkable book. De Zayas looks at the evidence from all sources, including denials by the killers, and he evaluates them in the light of all available evidence. Why is this book very important? Secrecy certainly facilitated the Armenian genocide, the Holocaust, the massacres of Halabja and Srebrenica. Some will deny a crime until the overwhelming weight of the evidence leads them to psychologically accept its cold and depressing historicity.

In short: this is a mature and distanced study of one of the most difficult issues of World War II: the mechanism that made it possible to murder six million Jews. How could something like that occur in Europe? This book rejects generalizations, simplifications, collective guilt paradigms. It goes for the jugular: totalitarianism.

What made it happen? A curious combination of secrecy, deception, war psychosis and terror. This author does not buy the primitive equations invented by Goldhagen — and by others. This author takes a methodically impeccable approach, does not stop at the necessary archival work, goes out and interviews witnesses, the accused, prosecution lawyers, defence lawyers, victims. He evaluates the existing scholarship and builds on it. Such self-loathing will also make Germans eager to give up their tainted national identity and become members of a world community whether or not one really exists.

Still, Goldhagen conducted book tours among the descendants of those he indiscriminately trashed, bringing mass displays of smarmily repentant German sinners. While any violation of this restriction would be met with severe punishment, the secret was not as well kept as Germans would have their conquerors believe. Jews could not have been removed, we are told, without their non-Jewish neighbors knowing they would suffer a horrendous fate wherever they were taken.

The now received view preaches that there was anti-Semitism in Germany going back many centuries. It notes that in the interwar period, nationalist parties urging the exclusion of Jewish citizens received many votes. There is something else that anti-German historians now emphasize but which they may exaggerate: the occasional breakdown of the distinction between the Waffen SS Einsatzgruppen—which rounded up and murdered Jews, Poles, and Russians—and Wehrmacht soldiers who were simply fighting a war.

Just about every Anglophone historian writing on the Third Reich is now arguing that the Holocaust was mostly the work of regular German soldiers. But historians such as Tim Snyder and Richard J. This view has become so prevalent among antifascist Germans there is no other kind now permitted that in public demonstrations and lavish exhibitions the average Wehrmacht soldier has been turned into the major perpetrator of Nazi murders. On these occasions young people come forth to tell us that their grandfathers or great-grandfathers were most certainly mass murderers.

These penitent descendants seem to hope their ancestral nation will soon disappear. Zayas has authored other controversial works that go against the prevalent leftist grain. Records from the Wehrmacht Office for the Investigation of Violations of International Law indicate an official willingness to investigate reported crimes against civilians.

Although this forced evacuation caused some concern among friends and neighbors, what was happening did not look like the beginning of genocide. The most obvious reason for this is that secrecy was strictly observed. The Holocaust was planned by a small circle meeting outside Berlin in January In addressing his SS subordinates in Posen in , Himmler boasted about how well their secret was being kept. Other factors worked to keep the secret from getting out: The death camps, as opposed to generic concentration camps, were located in the east, not in Germany.

Then from on, German civilians were subject to Allied bombing and had to protect themselves while enemy forces overran them. Even foreign sources, which were mostly available as radio transmissions, had little to say about the murdered Jews, and being caught using these sources could land the offender in a concentration camp. Ironically, Zayas confirms findings about the Holocaust that came out of the Nuremberg Trials. Although these trials were planned to make Germans feel ashamed of their country, the judges did not declare all Germans to be complicit in the Holocaust.

It was assumed that the mass extermination of Jews was a carefully guarded secret. Very few of those put on trial were sentenced to death or to long imprisonment for planning to murder Jews. Even the prosecutors believed what Zayas tells us concerning knowledge of the Final Solution. Admittedly there were isolated instances of Wehrmacht units participating in the shooting of Jews and other civilians, particularly in Kharkov and elsewhere in the Ukraine. But those were treated as special cases and not seen as typical of Wehrmacht behavior.

It speaks volumes that Zayas—who echoes the post-War, Nuremberg Trial view of who knew what about the Holocaust—is now regarded in some circles as a German apologist. What are the norms and principles of international law that are applicable? Is the argument put forward by some deniers that it is not possible to talk about the Armenian genocide because the concept was not yet defined at the same time according to international law a sustainable argument?

Would the aplication of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide to the case of the Armenian genocide violate the non-retroactivity aspect of criminal law? Professor Alfred de Zayas provides an answer to these and other questions in his excellent juridical opinion - a thoroughly documented, clearly articulated and highly valuable juridical analysis that proposes a concrete and durable resolution to this crime against humanity. Nemesis at Potsdam first ed. It was advertised that the transfers should be made under 'humane' conditions.

There was no controls or authoritative supervision, so that the individual refugee had no recourse or protection. It is true that the United States State Department voiced proper regard for the humanities, but its voice was not vigorous or even heard in Eastern Europe at the time of the expulsion. Few Americans dreamt of a brutal expulsion affecting perhaps 16 million persons!

Eisenhower and Lucius Clay and participant at the Potsdam Conference. Most pertinently he insists that we deny what the lesser histories conspire with us to invent - that there are stopping places in history. Aided by Marshall Plan funds the millions of displaced persons, still longing for their homelands, recognized the futility of resort to force and turned to hard work to rebuild their lives by absorption in a democratic and peaceful society.

The Helsinki Conference of in effect acknowledged that the provisional Oder-Neisse demarcation line implied de facto annexation. The lesson from this well organized and moving historical record is not merely that retribution which penalizes innocent human beings becomes injustice, but that acceptance of political realities may be a better road to human fulfillment than the path of violence. Alfred de Zayas has written a persuasive commentary on the suffering which becomes inevitable when humanitarianism is subordinated to nationalism.

Carl G. Anthon in American Historical Review, December , p. Some of them, after all, professed to believe in the principles of the Atlantic Charter. The book should cause argument and controversy; it deserves a wide readership. Notes, bibliography and illustrations are excellent. Highly recommended for libraries of four-year colleges and graduate schools wanting good material on recent Central European affairs " Choice, July-August Journal of the American Library Association. Damodaran in International Studies, , volume 28, Number 3, pages The author I don't think people outside Germany know much about it.

The de Zayas book makes clear that the last provision was not fulfilled. As the only book-length treatment of the subject, this is for all libraries with strong collections in modern European history. Library Journal , David P. Jensen, Greensboro Coll. As the 16 million Germans were driven westward, some two million died, but the world remained silent.

Outraged by the crimes Nazis had perpetrated Due to the willingness of the press and the scholarly comunity in the West to ignore these facts of the Potsdam accord, few Americans or Britons know there ever was an expulsion, let alone authorization of the compulsory transfer. Questioning rhetorically whether the wrong could ever be righted, de Zayas maintains that the West could affirm its regard for individual guilt or innocence and reject the concept of collective guilt. Olaf College, Die Unterrichtspraxis , Vol. For example, it shakes one a bit, but is good for the soul, to be reminded that, although treaties of peace were signed soon after the end of hostilities with Italy, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary, there has been no treaty with either Germany.

He argues that overreaction to the evils of the Nazis led to the principle of collective German guilt, a theory that does not protect the innocent and which ruled the thoughts and actions of many responsible British and American officials when they agreed to the expulsion demands of Stalin. Only later did they realize the inherent inhumanity of the results of their lack of perception The rather extensive bibliography is also worthy of note. With increasing concern over human rights, past and present, surely this horrible episode will receive growing attention.

Recognizing realities, one cannot see how these injustices can be rectified, since those who committed them have made no effort to even recognize them. One can only hope that two wrongs have taught enough lessons to prevent a third. The historian, however, is bound to deal with these events in the same manner as he deals with earlier crimes against humanity. Greeks, Turks, Tatars, Jews, Poles, Bengalis, Palestinians and Germans among others have become victims of such revived practices of wholesale violence and, as the author of this carefully researched book points out, it is the Germans who are by far the most numerous in the melancholy parade of involungary exiles.

No doubt as a result of the enormities committed in the Hitler period, no one outside the Federal Republic has been much concerned with them, although they numbered more than 16 million people of whom more than 2 million perished Spokesmen in the East, West and Third World have never ceased to call attention to the plight of the Palestinian refugees, who have themselves kept the United Nations and world opinion aware of their losses with impassioned appeals as well as by acts of terror. But the 16 million Germans driven from their homelands have been largely ignored even by historians.

Mr de Zayas, a young American lawyer, is a pioneer thirty years after the event in informing English-speaking readers about what happened Regardless of anything Hitler did, compromises had to be made by the Western heads of state with Stalin's plans of empire or there would be no postwar cooperation of the victorious powers. As Mr. The Potsdam Conference occupies a key position in his analysis, since on this occasion the United States and Great Britain sanctioned the expulsions.

Turning to the study of the human consequences of these forced migrations, de Zayas has frequently relied on interviews, such as that with Robert Murphy, the wartime political adviser of General Eisenhower, and on previously untapped archival resources. The fresh insigts of the chapters on Allied military governance and the division of Germany in the immediate postwar period make this work essential reading for students of European interntional relations.

Wolfe in Southern Review , , Vol. The book sheds first light on a dark chapter of World War II. As Robert Murphy, US political adviser for Germany during the Potsdam Conference, notes in the foreword, de Zayas' account accurately portrays 'the tragic fate of the dramatic transfer of millions of Germans from Eastern Europe to the West' This mass exodus, unparalleled in recent history, was set in motion by the Communist leadership of the Soviet Union, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

The excesses of the victorious armies-- beatings, sadistic rapes and murders -- were ignored by the mass media. It was a time of retribution, a desire to punish the conquered Germans, and the concept of collective guilt was used against half-starved, homeless and innocent victims. Only a handful of people protested, among them a young Red Army captain, Alexander Solzhenitsyn. He wrote an epic page poem about the shameful actions of his fellow Russians. His book is well researched, closely reasoned.

Some of its pictures, previously unpublished, are as shocking as the concentration camp photos familiar to all of us. Their distortions of fact had a decided effect on the thinking of many Western leades. Ironically, it was Winston Churchill, the nemesis depicted in Goebbels' propagnada to the German people, who foresaw most clearly the immense human tragedy that would result from the mass expulsions and who tried to curb the Eastern European countries' desire for territorial expansion at the expense of the German state.

Hundreds of thousands of German civilians hurried west before the terrifying apparition of the shockingly undisciplined soviet army. Eastern leaders stated that this exodus had cleared out all the Germans, conveniently ignoring the fact tha misslions remained. These millions were abruptly ousted once formal conflict had ended The story begins in the fall of , in a village of East Prussia called Nemmersdorf, overrun by the Red Army in its first thrust into German territory The courageous British journalist Victor Gollancz to whom de Zayas dedicates his book , himself a Jew, protested that the Allies were treating German civilians as Himmler had treated the Jews.

Bertrand Russell called it extermination, describing the scene in the Berlin rainway station as another Belsen Republished in Amerika Woche, 3 March , page 8. But rather than waving the bloody shirt, he tries to answer a question which is puzzling indeed: how was all this possible when the Potsdam Protocol clearly stated that 'the transfer to Germany of German populations This book ought to be used in the schools and colleges of this country. Even better, it should also be made into a television movie, drawing fromt he documentary which the author helped to prepare for German television a few years ago.

As the late Robert Murphy noted in the Foreword, Stalin's unsympathetic disregard of the rights of the individual Germans affected by population transfers is understandable in the context of Soviet hatred of the Nazi war machine. What is not understandable, however, is why Britain and the United States failed to see the injustice visited upon millions Substantially, organizationally and stylistically, this book is an outstanding historiographical achievement" Professor Henry Lane Hull, University of Alabama at Huntsville, The Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. The expulsion of this large number of an ethnic group, authorized by and with the assistance of the Westtern Allies, brought forth the death and suffering of millions of human beings in clear violation of the basic principle upon which the Allies had agreed.

This, the author shows convincingly. VI, No. A new book 'Nemesis at Potsdam' by a young Harvard Law graduate Alfred de Zayas raises serious questions about Allied acquiescence in what was one of the most massive, and in some ways brutal, forced expulsions of nonmilitary populations in history. While critical of western leadership, de Zayas leaves no doubt about the agents of the crime-- the Soviet leaders. The recent works of A. Solzhenitsyn and Lev Kopelev give further credence to the thesis that Soviet retributive actions were often not spontaneous but were planned Praised must be de Zayas's reopening of this largely neglected aspect of modern German history through this brief but well-written account.

I'd never realised the scale of what had happened I'd never known much about the episode because history's written by the winners. It was Goering who was tried at Nuremberg, and sadly not Bomber Harris, who, acting on instructions from the British government, had systematically massacred half a million German civilians since And it was the authorities at Belsen and not those at Camp Lamsdorf who were prosecuted -- Camp Lamsdorf being a camp of German internees in Upper Silesia where, according to this book, out of a population of 8, people, 6, -- including children -- died through starvation, disease, hard labour and physical maltreatment Number 21, Spring , who had already reviewed it in a long article "Retrospective on a Second Holocaust" in which he wrote "Nemesis at Potsdam is a valuable book.

Its style is highly readable and it presents the essential narrative of the expulsion both in human terms and in total historical context. Nemesis at Potsdam should be valuable collateral reading for secondary and college courses in modern European history. Telles sont quelques-unes des questions auxquelles M. En outre, cet 'oeil pour oeil, dent pour dent' est un peu simpliste. On 13 and 14 April Patrick Buchanan's column appeared in more than newspapers in the United States, observing:. Few German women in Eastern Europe escaped rape.

In a long article "The Taboo against Truth" published in and republished in the internet , Professor Ralph Raico writes in part: "The great crime that is today virtually forgotten was the expulsion starting in of the Germans from their centuries-old homelands in East Prussia, Pomerania, Silesia, Sudetenland and elsewhere. About 16 million persons were displaced, with about 2 million of them dying in the process. This is a fact which, as the American legal scholar Alfred de Zayas dryly notes 'has somehow escaped the attention it deserves' The doctoral dissertation of Dr.

Years ago I read a short but provocative book entitled Our Threatened Values. The author, Victor Gollancz, was a distinguished English publisher and humanitarian. I never met him. He died in London after a long and fruitful life. To the memory of this corageous man and to the principles of human dignity for which he stood I dedicate this book.

III. The universe within

ISBN The first Routledge edition of this book was purchased for distribution by the German government agency Inter-Nationes and distributed to visiting diplomats, professors and students. Although the academic reception of the book was excellent, and the book is currently used in several universities and is sold in its 6th US edition and 14th German edition, some negative opinions have been articulated from time to time -- albeit without any effort at precise and constructive criticism, but rather in the ad hominem manner.

Bizarre, because the critic's own book on the subject does not produce any new documents or insights, and instead rehashes known information, unlike Nemesis at Potsdam which is based on extensive new archival finds and personal interviews with participants of the Potsdam Conference. Moreover, the critic writes his book in and claims that my book is not up-to-date.

When you consult his bibliography, you see that he relies on the third C. Beck edition , and not on the much revised and up-dated 13th Ullstein edition of This is the kind of petty jealousies and competition in academia that we would try to forget. This reminds me of a perceptive observation attributed to Henry Kissinger: "University politics are vicious precisely because the stakes are so small.

Calumniare audacter, semper aliquid haeret. The book is used in many colleges and universities. He is currently a professor of international law at the Geneva School of Diplomacy. He wrote the first scholarly work on German expellees to appear in English, breaking what had long been a taboo topic.

The post-war expulsions were the largest forced movement of Europeans in the 20th century. Historians estimate that between 12 and 15 million people were expelled during the forced migrations. Aus dem Vorwort von Professor Dr. Weitere Versuche, eine Kollektivschuld der Deutschen zu belegen, werden and er Arbeit des Autors nicht vorbeikommen Schon vor Jahren hat er die Frage aufgeworfen, die er jetzt wiederholt, mit welchem Recht man eigentlich den damaligen Deutschen vorwerfe, nicht sofort begriffen zu haben, dass man die deportierten Juden umbringen werde.

Auch die deportierten Juden selbst ahnten bis zuletzt nichts von ihrem unmittelbar bevorstehenden Ende. Ganz im Gegenteil nahmen sie an, dass ihnen an den Zielorten eine bessere Zukunft bevorstehe als in den Herkunftsorten, in denen sie zunehmenden Schikanen ausgesetzt gewesen waren. Einer der ganz wenigen Insassen von Auschwitz, dem die Flucht gelang, hat berichtet, er habe in den zwei Jahren, die er an der Rampe deportierte Juden in Empfang zu nehmen hatte, keinen einzigen getroffen, der auch nur entfernt ahnte, was vielen Ankommenden unmittelbar bevorstand.

Januar wurde offenbar durchweg befolgt. Hitlers Anweisung hat zugleich bewirkt, dass der Kreis der Eingeweihten unglaublich klein blieb, erstaunlicherweise auch innerhalb der SS. Offiziell waren die Juden in Arbeitslager im Osten verbracht. Feldpostbriefe und Auslandssender haben allenfalls einige erreicht, und dann nur mit fragmentatischen Informationen. Pauschale Schuldzuweisungen sind daher unhistorisch und menschenrechtlich inakzeptabel. Methodisch ist Zayas einwandfrei, wertet stets behutsam. Rezension in New York Staats-Zeitung, 3.

September , S. Gunter Nitsch. Wer ertappt wurde, kam selbst in ein KZ. Eduard Werner. Alfred de Zayas scheut keinen Konflikt mit der political correctness , wenn es um Wahrheit und Gerechtigkeit geht. Ein Batteriechef wurde deswegen zum Tode verurteilt. Ein Unteroffizier, der eine russische Familie ermordete, wurde samt seinen Helfern ebenfalls erschossen. Der Chef der Parteikanzlei, Martin Bormann, gab am Der Reichspressechef erteilte am Mit diesem letzten Satz macht Himmler ungewollt deutlich, dass das deutsche Volk nicht antisemitisch war.

Hinsichtlich der Beurteilung von Generalfeldmarschall v. Manstein erscheint dem Rezensenten die Sicht de Zayas doch etwas zu optimistisch. In dessen Befehl vom Jahrhundert ereignet. Dagegen wird die Erinnerung an die zahllosen, an Deutschen begangenen Verbrechen zusehends minimiert oder historisch ausgeblendet. Alfred de Zayas kommt auf ca. Aus der Rede Himmlers in Posen geht hervor, dass dieser dem deutschen Volk nicht traute, auch nicht der Wehrmacht und nicht einmal seiner SS. Churchill schrieb am Der ehemalige amerikanische Richter im Hitler wies Himmler an, die Aktion anlaufen zu lassen.

Ein weiterer ist ein SS-Richter. Was wusste der Widerstand? Also von Hitler ermordet! Konnten die Verbrechen geheim gehalten werden, z. Lange Zeit ja. Und bis heute wissen es Millionen nicht oder wollen es nicht wissen. De Zayas hat seine Forschung als vollkommen unbefangener angefangen. Er hat gefragt und hinterfragt. Er erstellt den Deutschen keinen Persilschein, lehnt aber die Kollektivschuldthese nicht nur als unhistorisch sondern vor allem als menschenverachtend ab.

Das Zitat stammt Aus den Episteln. Es lautet im Original: Dimidium facti, qui coepit, habet: sapere aude, incipe! Es geht um nichts weniger, als um den Vorwurf einer Kollektivschuld der Deutschen an den Verbrechen des Nationalsozialismus. Zu Recht betont de Zayas, die Unwissenschaftlichkeit dieser Argumentationen. Hier kommt die vom Autor bereits angesprochene unredliche und unwissenschaftliche Arbeitsweise einiger Historiker erneut zur Sprache. Ob der allerdings von den Verfechtern derselben wahrgenommen wird, darf bezweifelt werden. Friedrich Wilhelm Rothenpieler, ; Viktor E. Frankl, Das hat Alfred de Zayas getan.

Damit beziehen sie eine Verteidigungsposition gegen das Postulat der Kollektivschuld aller Deutschen. Ihnen wird eine objektive Beurteilung abgesprochen. Darin manifestiert sich ein machtpolitisches Paradigma, dessen Wurzeln massenpsychologischen Ursprungs sind. Sie zu kappen bedeutete, den unbedingten politischen Willen zur objektivierenden Auseinandersetzung mit dem Hitler-Regime zu haben. Davon kann keine Rede sein. Sie lieferte lediglich ein absichtsvolles und kein versehentliches Zerrbild der Geschehnisse.

Das war auch hier der Fall. Er hing in jeder Schreibstube. De Zayas weicht auch dieser Frage nicht aus und kann sie letztlich mit nein beantworten. Was manche Leute sich selbst vormachen,das macht ihn so schnell keiner nach. Alfred de Zayas ist nicht irgendwer. Dieser Nachweis ist m. Seite 22 Die SD-Einsatzgruppen, die u. Januar und seinen Konsequenzen in allen Bereichen.

Seite Letzterer wird im Buch auf Seite mit beachtenswerten Feststellungen zu der Frage zitiert, wieso nach der Machtergreifung Hitlers die deutschen Juden selbst nicht glauben wollten, was ihnen drohte. Januar , und seit dem September sahen viele, wie Juden im Reich den gelben Stern trugen. Es ist eine Geschichtsklitterung ersten Ranges, den allgemeinen Antisemitismus mit dem Massenmord gleichzusetzen.

Die Begierde des Highlanders

Der Giftgasangriff auf das kurdische Dorf Halabdscha mit rund 5. Die Anglo-Amerikaner und die Vertreibung der Deutschen first ed. CH Beck , 14th ed. Kein amerikanischer Autor hat bisher die historischen Folgen so umfassend und klar analysiert. Die Konferenz der Grossen Drei Seite Februar Januar Alfred M. An den Schulen und anderen Bildungsinstitutionen ist es jetzt, das einzigartige und bewegende Anschauungsmaterial richtig einzuordnen Es hat sich jetzt gezeigt, dass nicht nur die jungen Deutschen, sondern auch die jungen Polen oder Russen von den grausamen Umstanden der Austreibung keine Ahnung haben.

Hans Georg Lehmann in Das Parlament , Dietrich Schwarzkopf, Sender Freies Berlin, Mai Dezember August , NDR.

german-decompounder/ilyqubapas.cf at master · uschindler/german-decompounder · GitHub

Dezember , In erster Linie wohl die Tatsache, dass hier von einem unbefangegnen und sichtbar engagierten Amerikaner die Mitverantwortung der angloamerikanischen Politik an einer der grossen Katastrophen der Nachkriegsjahre festgehalten wird --nicht im anklaegerischen Ton des Moralisten onder in dem der verfolgten Unschuld, sondern mit nuechterner Sachlichkeit In zweiter Linie ist bedeutsam, dass bekannte Schilderungen der Unmenschlichkeit der Vertreibung, die hier nochmals eindrucksvoll zusammengestellt werden, durch Berichte amerikanischer Gesandter aus Prag und Warschau ergaenzt und bestaetigt werden.

Sein Buch ist wissenschaftlich sachlich, unparteilich, aber doch deutlich gepraegt von einem Sinn fuer Fairness und Gerichtigkeit". Sender Freies Berlin. Rezensiert durch Dietrich Schwarzkopf, Harald Steffahn Denn: "Polen in Art. Aber kein amerikanischer Autor hat bisher die historischen Folgen so umfassend und klar analysiert.

Aber er sieht eben auch, dass eine dauernde Friedensordnung nicht dadurch erreicht werden kann, dass die Friedensstifter ihre moralischen Prinhzipien der sogenannten Realpolitik opfern" Friedrich Knut in der Stuttgarter Zeitung, April Auch ist dies gerade die Absicht der Staaten. Sie wollen Wohlstand und Ruhe.

Alles im Menschen ist Organisation. Vielleicht scheint dies zu allgemeine Raisonnement keine Anwendung auf die Wirklichkeit zu verstatten. Ehe es Aerzte gab, kannte man nur Gesundheit oder Tod. Allein den Irrthum, welcher diesem ganzen Raisonnement zum Grunde liegt, zeigen Vernunft und Erfahrung leicht.

Denn alles, was in sich selbst reizend ist, erweckt Achtung und Liebe, was nur als Mittel Nutzen verspricht, bloss Interesse; und nun wird der Mensch durch Achtung und Liebe eben so sehr geadelt, als er durch Interesse in Gefahr ist, entehrt zu werden. Wenn es keine unrichtige Vorstellung ist, dass jede Gattung der Trefflichkeit sich — wenn ich so sagen darf — in einer Art der Wesen darstellt; so bewahrt der weibliche Charakter den ganzen Schatz der Sittlichkeit.

Von diesen haben indess doch die meisten nur mit Zeichen und Formeln [ : 34] der Dinge zu thun. Dasselbe Uebel, aus welchem dieser Nachtheil entspringt, wird wieder von demselben wechselsweis hervorgebracht. Daher nimmt in den meisten Staaten von Jahrzehend zu Jahrzehend das Personale der Staatsdiener, und der Umfang der Registraturen zu, und die Freiheit der Unterthanen ab. Denn auf den Moment der Spannung vermag nur eine gleiche Spannung zu folgen, und die Richtung zum Genuss oder zum Entbehren liegt in der Hand des unbesiegten Schicksals. Welcher Gedanke selbst wagt es nun, die Schnelligkeit dieser Fortschritte zu begleiten?

Wenn z. Der Zweck, den er erreichen will, ist also schon gewissermaassen in der Gegenwart vorbereitet, und wirkt folglich darum heilsam. Eben dies, und das ganze vorige Raisonnement aber ging allein aus Gesichtspunkten aus, welche blos die Kraft des Menschen, als solchen, und seine innere Bildung zum Gegenstand hatten. Jede Erreichung eines grossen Endzwecks erfordert Einheit der Anordnung. Das ist gewiss. Jene hat nur eine mittelbare, diese eine unmittelbare Gewalt. Allein hier zeigt eben die Erfahrung die verderblichen Folgen, wenn die Absicht Sicherheit zu erhalten, und andre Endzwecke zu erreichen mit einander verbunden wird.

In einer grossen Vereinigung wird er zu leicht Werkzeug. Auch sind diese Vereinigungen Schuld, dass oft das Zeichen an die Stelle der Sache tritt, welches der Bildung allemal hinderlich ist. Die todte Hieroglyphe begeistert nicht, wie die lebendige Natur. Ich erinnere hier nur statt alles Beispiels an Armenanstalten. Und sollte sie nicht seegenvoller gewesen sein? Diese Sorgfalt ist nothwendig, — macht den eigentlichen Endzweck des Staats aus.

Es ist daher keine letzte, widerspruchlose Macht nothwendig, welche doch im eigentlichsten Verstande den Begriff des Staats ausmacht. Die [ : 45] Beleidigung fordert Rache, und die Rache ist eine neue Beleidigung. Nun lebt zwar der Stamm, auf dem sie hervorspriessen kann, in der Vergangenheit. Den Elementen sucht man mehr zu entrinnen, ihre Gewalt mehr auszudauern, als sie zu besiegen:. Ich frage einen jeden, was solch ein Beispiel auf eine Nation wirkt? Schon dies spricht gegen die stehenden Armeen. Allein unsere stehende Armeen bringen, wenn ich so sagen darf, den Krieg mitten in den Schooss des Friedens.

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Sie sind ein Theil des Ganzen, welches nicht Plane eitler menschlicher Vernunft, sondern die sichere Hand des Schicksals gebildet hat. Er gebe Freiheit und dieselbe Freiheit geniesse ein benachbarter Staat. Soll ich jetzt auch aus diesem Raisonnement einen zu meinem Endziel dienenden Grundsatz ziehen;. Schon eine sehr mangelhafte Erfahrung lehrt, dass diese Sorgfalt mehr oder minder weit ausgreifen kann, ihren Endzweck zu erreichen. In unsern, meistentheils monarchischen Staaten ist das alles ganz anders. Wo also nicht alles zusammenstimmt, da vermag diese Erziehung allein nicht durchzudringen.

Jede Verfassung wirkte so sehr auf den Nationalcharakter, dieser, bestimmt gebildet, artete aus, und brachte eine neue hervor. Um die in einem Staat nothwendige Sicherheit zu erhalten, ist Umformung der Sitten selbst nicht nothwendig. Oeffentliche Erziehung scheint mir daher ganz ausserhalb der Schranken zu liegen, in welchen der Staat seine Wirksamkeit halten muss. Historischer Blick auf die Art, wie die Staaten sich der Religion bedient haben.

Ausser der eigentlichen Erziehung der Jugend gibt es noch ein anderes Mittel auf den Charakter und die Sitten der Nation zu wirken, durch welches der Staat gleichsam den erwachsenen, reif gewordenen Menschen erzieht, sein ganzes Leben hindurch seine Handlungsweise und Denkungsart begleitet, und derselben diese oder jene Richtung zu ertheilen, oder sie wenigstens vor diesem oder jenem Abwege zu bewahren versucht — die Religion.

Alle Staaten, soviel uns die Geschichte aufzeigt, haben sich dieses Mittels, obgleich in sehr verschiedener [ : 62] Absicht, und in verschiedenem Maasse bedient. Nur verschieden ist die Vorstellung der Gottheit nach der Verschiedenheit der Vorstellung von Vollkommenheit, die in jedem Zeitalter und unter jeder Nation herrscht. Vielmehr beruht die Wirksamkeit der Religion schlechterdings auf der individuellen Beschaffenheit der Menschen, und ist im strengsten Verstande subjektiv.

Allein auch hier sind die Nuancen unendlich verschieden. Selbst dass sie sich der Religion, als eines Bildungsmittels bedienen, ist ein Beweis davon. Der Nutzen freier Untersuchung dehnt sich auf unsre ganze Art, nicht blos zu denken, sondern zu handeln aus. Zweifel, die seine Vernunft erregt, peinigen ihn. Denn sie sind nicht, wie in dem selbstdenkenden Kopfe, neue Mittel zur Wahrheit zu gelangen; sie nehmen ihm blos die Gewissheit, ohne ihm ein Mittel anzuzeigen, dieselbe auf eine andre Weise wieder zu erhalten.

Wie Religion in einem Menschen von selbst entstehe? Die sinnlichen Empfindungen, Neigungen und Leidenschaften sind es, welche sich zuerst und in den heftigsten Aeusserungen im Menschen zeigen. Wo sie, ehe noch Kultur sie verfeinert, oder der Energie der Seele eine andre Richtung gegeben hat, schweigen; da ist auch alle Kraft erstorben, und es kann nie etwas Gutes und Grosses gedeihen. Indess ist ihr Einfluss in der Intension, wie in der Art des Wirkens verschieden. Das Auge, wenn ich so sagen darf, liefert dem Verstande einen mehr vorbereiteten Stoff.

Es fragt sich indess, ob dies der richtige Maassstab sei? Meiner Idee nach, ist Energie die erste und einzige Tugend des Menschen. Dies alles aber ist der Fall der Musik. Ferner ist der Musik blos diese Zeitfolge eigen; nur diese ist in ihr bestimmt. Es ist gleichsam ein Thema, dem man unendlich viele Texte unterlegen kann. Die eben geschilderte Art zu wirken, ist nun nicht der [ : 88] Musik allein eigen.

Selbst bei dem Geschmack ist sie unverkennbar. So macht die Malerei, selbst die Plastik es sich eigen. Indem sie den Gegenstand weniger lebhaft darstellt, als die Malerei und die Plastik, spricht sie die Empfindung weniger eindringend an, als der Gesang und die Musik. Doch genug hievon.

Die gleiche Entschuldigung muss ich, auch bei dem nun Folgenden, nicht zu vergessen bitten. Das ewige Studium dieser Physiognomik der Natur bildet den eigentlichen Menschen. Nur der blos analytische Philosoph kann vielleicht durch die einfachen Operationen der, nicht blos ruhigen, sondern auch kalten Vernunft seinen Endzweck erreichen. Ihr dadurch Freiheit und Achtung zu erwerben, war meine Absicht. Vergessen darf ich indess nicht, dass gerade die Sinnlichkeit auch die Quelle einer grossen Menge physischer und moralischer Uebel ist. Blos gewisse Handlungen, Gesinnungen hervorzubringen, giebt es freilich sehr viele Wege.

Und wie gross auch das Uebel des Sittenverderbnisses sein mag, es ermangelt selbst der heilsamen Folgen nicht. Dies zeigt sogar die Geschichte der Wilden. Freiheit veranlasst vielleicht manche Vergehung, giebt aber selbst dem Laster eine minder unedle Gestalt. Alle Staatseinrichtungen, indem sie ein mannigfaltiges und sehr verschiedenes Interesse in eine Einheit bringen sollen, verursachen vielerlei Kollisionen. Beide fliessen unmittelbar aus dem oben entwickelten Raisonnement. Nur wenn man dem Ausdrucke der Sicherheit diese Bedeutung unterlegt, kann jenes Anwendung finden.

Ueber den Ausdruck Polizeigesetze. Von diesem Fall handeln die meisten der sogenannten Polizeigesetze. Und zwar muss in Absicht der Rechte des Staats hier dasjenige angewandt werden, was von dem Sinne dieses Ausdrucks so eben allgemein erinnert worden ist. In dem ersteren Fall geriethe die Freiheit, in dem letzteren die Sicherheit in Gefahr zu leiden.

Es ist daher freilich soviel ersichtlich, dass ein [ : ] Mittelweg getroffen werden muss. Die Theorie kann daher nicht mehr, als jene Momente der Ueberlegung, angeben. Ueberall, wo sonst Schaden entsteht, ist es Zufall, den der Handelnde zu ersetzen nicht verbunden ist. Eine weitere Ausdehnung liesse sich nur aus einem stillschweigenden Vertrage der Zusammenlebenden, und also schon wiederum aus etwas Positivem herleiten. Sprengt sie doch nicht in der physischen Natur jeden Fels, der dem [ : ] Wanderer in dem Wege steht!

Solch ein gemeinschaftliches Eigenthum sind z. Beraubung der Freiheit, die z. Die Versicherung der Person der Schuldner z. So bei der Ehe. Endlich kann es auch nicht eine Wohlthat aufdringen heissen, wenn man die Befugniss aufhebt, ihr im Voraus zu entsagen. Endlich dient die Freiheit letztwilliger Verordnungen sehr oft und meistentheils gerade den unedleren Leidenschaften des Menschen, dem Stolze, der Herrschsucht, der Eitelkeit u.

Schon mehr als einmal ist der genaue Zusammenhang der Gesetze der Intestatsuccession mit den politischen Verfassungen der Staaten bemerkt worden, und leicht liesse sich dieses Mittel auch zu andern Zwecken gebrauchen. Der Isolirte vermag sich eben so wenig zu bilden, als der Gefesselte. Als solche Bestimmungen liessen sich z. Die Antwort muss sich aus dem festgestellten Grundsatz ergeben.

Diejenigen Handlungen, welche mit freier Bewilligung des andern geschehen, muss er in eben denjenigen, aber [ : ] keinen engern Schranken halten, als welche den Handlungen einzelner Menschen im Vorigen vorgeschrieben sind. So habe ich auch z. Der Staat tritt hier blos an die Stelle der Partheien. Allein auch hier treten noch neue Schranken ein. Die Entscheidung des streitigen Rechts durch den Richter kann nur durch bestimmte, gesetzlich angeordnete Kennzeichen der Wahrheit geschehen.

Handlungen, welche der Staat bestrafen muss. Grad der Nichtachtung des fremden Rechts. Besserung derselben. Die erste Frage nun, welche hiebei entsteht, ist die: welche Handlungen der Staat mit Strafen belegen, gleichsam als Verbrechen aufstellen kann? Die Antwort ist nach dem Vorigen leicht. Diese aber verdienen auch insgesammt angemessene Bestrafung. Von dem Gegenstande der Bestrafung wende ich mich zu der Strafe selbst. Was daher in einem gegebenen Falle mit Recht Grausamkeit heisst, das kann in einem andren die Nothwendigkeit selbst erheischen.

Auf jeden Fall reduzirt sich daher diese Strafe allein darauf, dass der Staat dem Verbrecher die Merkmale seiner Achtung und seines Vertrauens entziehn, und andern gestatten [ : ] kann dies gleichfalls ungestraft zu thun. Nicht minder gross ist die Schwierigkeit bei der Frage: wie lange die Strafe dauern solle? Unstreitig wird jeder [ : ] Billigdenkende sie nur auf eine gewisse Zeit hin erstrecken wollen. Wenn das absolute Maas der Strafen keine allgemeine Bestimmung erlaubt; so ist dieselbe hingegen um so nothwendiger bei dem relativen. Allein wird dieser Grundsatz richtig verstanden; so ist er mit dem eben aufgestellten einerlei.

Er ist ungerecht. Darauf beruht nicht blos diese Verbindlichkeit ausser der Staatsverbindung, sondern auch in derselben. Die Gleichheit zwischen Verbrechen und Strafe, welche die eben entwickelten Ideen fordern, kann wiederum nicht absolut bestimmt, es kann nicht allgemein gesagt werden, dieses oder jenes Verbrechen verdient nur eine solche oder solche Strafe. Wenn daher, nach dem Vorigen, die Bestimmung des [ : ] absoluten Maases der Strafen, z. Wenn auf diese Weise Verbrechen und Strafe allgemein von dem Gesetze bestimmt sind, so muss nun dies gegebene Strafgesetz auf einzelne Verbrechen angewendet werden.

England, hierin einer edlen Gesetzgebung erfreuen. Da ich im Vorigen S. Auf der andern aber vermehrt sich auch der Nachtheil in eben dem Grade, in welchem die moralische Natur jede Fessel schwerer empfindet, als die physische. Nur, scheint es mir, ist eine gesetzliche Vorschrift hiezu nicht blos ein undienliches, sondern sogar entgegenarbeitendes Mittel. Daher haben auch die denkendsten neueren Gesetzgeber versucht, die Strafen zugleich zu Besserungsmitteln zu machen. Absolutio ab instantia. Desto emsiger aber muss derselbe darauf bedacht sein, kein begangenes Verbrechen unentdeckt, kein entdecktes unbestraft, ja nur gelinder bestraft zu lassen, als das Gesetz es verlangt.

Noch ungerechter aber wird eine solche Verheimlichung bei dem Verfahren [ : ] zur Aufsuchung der Verbrechen. Wenn zwischen diesem, und dem, bei Gelegenheit der Handlungen des einzelnen Menschen S. Allgemeine Anmerkung zu diesem und den vier vorhergehenden Abschnitten. Daher niemals z. Jedoch muss diese Aufsicht niemals positiv den Eltern eine bestimmte Bildung und Erziehung der Kinder vorschreiben wollen, sondern nur immer negativ dahin gerichtet sein, Eltern und Kinder gegenseitig in den, ihnen vom Gesetz bestimmten Schranken zu erhalten.

Zuerst von jenen, dann von diesen. Nothwendigkeit dieser Trennung. Da ich jetzt vollendet habe, was mir, bei der Uebersicht meines ganzen Plans im Vorigen S. Schon meine Unwissenheit in allem, was Finanzen heisst, verbietet mir hier ein langes Raisonnement. Schon oben S. Die Erfahrung lehrt, wie vielfache Einrichtungen ihre Anordnung und ihre Hebung voraussetzt, welche das vorige Raisonnement unstreitig nicht billigen kann.

Dann trifft auch hier ein, dass der Staat, der weniger wirken soll, auch eine geringere Macht, und die geringere Macht eine geringere Wehr braucht. Ich bin zufrieden, wenn ich bewiesen habe, dass dieser Grundsatz wenigstens bei allen Staatseinrichtungen dem Gesetzgeber, als Ideal, vorschreiben sollte. Anwendung der vorgetragenen Theorie auf die Wirklichkeit. Bei jeglicher Umformung der Gegenwart muss auf den bisherigen Zustand ein neuer folgen. Nun aber bringt jede Lage, in welcher sich die Menschen befinden, jeder Gegenstand, der sie umgiebt, eine bestimmte, feste Form in ihrem Innern hervor.

Dieser Grad der Kultur ist die wahre Reife der Freiheit. Allein diese Reife findet sich nirgends in ihrer Vollendung, und wird in dieser — meiner Ueberzeugung nach — auch dem sinnlichen, so gern aus sich herausgehenden Menschen ewig fremd bleiben. Dies Letztere ist unstreitig das Wichtigste, und zugleich in diesem System das Einfachste. Dieser Grundsatz ist ganz und gar aus der Anwendung des oben, in Absicht aller Reformen, aufgestellten S. So ist es also das Princip der Nothwendigkeit, zu welchem alle, in diesem ganzen Aufsatz vorgetragene Ideen, wie zu ihrem letzten Ziele, hinstreben.

Unter das Joch der Nothwendigkeit hingegen beugt jeder willig den Nacken. Wo nun schon einmal eine verwickelte Lage [ : ] vorhanden ist, da ist die Einsicht selbst des Nothwendigen schwierieger; aber gerade mit der Befolgung dieses Princips wird die Lage immer einfacher und diese Einsicht immer leichter. Ich bin jetzt das Feld durchlaufen, das ich mir, bei dem Anfange dieses Aufsatzes, absteckte.

Humboldt I. Juni Werke I. Mai , Auleben September , 7. Wieder abgedruckt in den Werken. Erinnerungen II, u. Von grosser Erheblichkeit sind sie nirgends. Es sind durchweg lediglich stylistische Abweichungen. Immerhin bliebe es interessant zu wissen, woher die Abweichungen der Abschrift stammen, aus der der Berliner Druck hervorgegangen ist. Februar Jam corporis cruciatus, omnium rerum inopia, fames, infamia, quaeque alia evenire iusto fratres dixerunt, animi illam e iustitia manantem voluptatem dubio procul longe superant, essetque adeo iniustitia iustitiae antehabenda et in virtutum numero collocanda.

Tiedemann in argumentis dialogorum Platonis. Riga ], und in der Kritik der praktischen Vernunft. Neues deutsches Museum, Junius, 22, 3. Mirabeau s. Sallustius in Catilina. Hesiodus in Theogonia. Basel Of rude nations prior to the establishment of property. Prometheus II. Berlin Berlin p. Dalberg vom Bilden und Erfinden. Aber ich sprach auch hier nicht von dem Fall, wenn z. Collection complette des travaux de Mr. Written in , in his early manhood, and at a time when the ideas which it unfolds were in striking contrast to the events and opinions of the day, the book was long obnoxious to the scruples of the German Censorship; and his friend Schiller, who took much interest in its publication, had some difficulty in finding a publisher willing to incur the necessary responsibility.

But we cannot but feel grateful to his distinguished brother, for giving publicity to a treatise which has such strong claims to attention, whether we regard the eminence of its Author as a philosopher and a statesman, the intrinsic value of its contents, or their peculiar interest at a time when the Sphere of Government seems more than ever to require careful definition.

To Englishmen, [v] least of all, is it likely to prove unattractive or uninstructive, since it endeavours to show the theoretical ideal of a policy to which their institutions have made a gradual and instinctive approximation; and contributes important ideas towards the solution of questions which now lie so near to the heart and conscience of the English public. With respect to the translation, I have aimed at scrupulous fidelity; believing that, even where there may be some obscurity as in one or two of the earlier chapters , the intelligent reader would prefer the ipsissima verba of so great a man, to any arbitrary construction put upon them by his translator.

Eugen Oswald: those who are best acquainted with the peculiarities of thought and style which characterize the writer, will be best able to appreciate the importance of such assistance. To discover the legitimate objects to which the energies of State organizations should be directed, and define the limits within which those energies should be exercised, is the design of the following pages. That the solution of this prime question of political philosophy must be pregnant with interest and high practical importance is sufficiently evident; and if we compare the most remarkable political constitutions with each other, and with the opinions of the most eminent philosophers, we shall, with reason, be surprised to find it so insufficiently discussed and vaguely answered; and agree, that any attempt to prosecute the inquiry with more success, is far from being a vain and superfluous labour.

Those who have either themselves remodelled the framework of State constitutions, or proposed schemes of political reform, seem mostly to have studied how to apportion the respective provinces which the nation, and any of its separate elements, should justly share in the administration,—to assign the due functions of each in the governmental plan,—and to adopt the precautions necessary for preserving the integrity of the several interests at stake. But in every [2] attempt to frame or reorganize a political constitution, there are two grand objects, it seems to me, to be distinctly kept in view, neither of which can be overlooked or made subordinate without serious injury to the common design; these are—first, to determine, as regards the nation in question, who shall govern, who shall be governed, and to arrange the actual working of the constituted power; and secondly, to prescribe the exact sphere to which the government, once constructed, should extend or confine its operations.